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Title: Frequency and Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With CKD: A Registry Study in Queensland Australia
Authors: Zhang, Jianzhen
Healy, Helen G
Baboolal, Keshwar
Wang, Zaimin
Venuthurupalli, Sree K
Tan, Ken-Soon
Cameron, Anne
Hoy, Wendy E
Fassett, Robert
Han, Thin 
Kan, George
Titus, Thomas
Madhan, Krishnan
Mantha, Murty
Banny, Chris
Govindarajulu, Sridivi
Gray, Nicholas 
Rolfe, Andrea
Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan 
Mutatiri, Clyson 
Hossain, Shahadat
Wu, Danielle
Cherian, Roy 
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Jianzhen Zhang, Helen G. Healy, Keshwar Baboolal, Zaimin Wang, Sree K. Venuthurupalli, Ken-Soon Tan, Anne Cameron, Wendy E. Hoy, Prof Robert Fassett, Dr Thin Han, Dr George Kan, A/Prof Thomas Titus, Dr Krishan Madhan, Dr Murty Mantha, Ms Chris Banny, Dr Sridivi Govindarajulu, Dr Nicholas Gray, Ms Andrea Rolfe, Dr Dwarakanathan Ranganathan, … Dr Roy Cherian. (2019). Frequency and Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With CKD: A Registry Study in Queensland Australia. Kidney Medicine, 1(4), 180–190.
Journal: Kidney medicine
Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to and complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD). We describe AKI documented in hospital encounters in patients with CKD from the CKD Queensland registry. A retrospective cohort study during 2011 to 2016. Participants had been admitted to a hospital in Queensland. AKI was identified from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification codes. All-cause mortality with or without kidney replacement therapy (KRT), start-up KRT and maintenance KRT, costs of care. Time to outcomes for those with versus without AKI was evaluated using Cox regression models. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare number of admissions, hospitalized days and costs by AKI status. Among 6,365 patients followed up for up to 5.4 years, 2,199 (35%) had 4,711 hospital encounters with an AKI diagnosis. Those with AKI were older (68 vs 64 years old), were more often men (36.7% vs 32.2%; P < 0.001), had more advanced CKD stages (stage 3b, 34%; stage 4, 35%; and stage 5, 10%), had more admissions (12 vs 5; P < 0.001), and stayed in the hospital longer (56 vs 14 days; P < 0.001) than those without AKI. Almost 90% of AKI admissions were through the emergency department. Of those with AKI, 554 (25%) subsequently died without any form of KRT and 285 (13%) started KRT, compared with 282 (6.8%) who died and 315 (7.6%) who started KRT among those without AKI; P < 0.001 for each. Adjusted for other significant factors, hazard ratios for all deaths or death without KRT were 2.95 (95% CI, 2.56-3.39; P < 0.001) and 3.02 (95% CI, 2.60-3.51; P < 0.001), respectively, in patients with AKI relative to those without AKI. The hazard ratio for all KRT was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.18-1.66; P < 0.001), and for maintenance KRT was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.98-1.48; P = 0.07). Mean total hospital cost in patients with AKI was more than triple that of patients with no AKI (A $93,042 vs A $30,778; P < 0.001). These findings may not be generalizable to CKD populations from the general community or in other health care environments. AKI is associated with strikingly increased deaths, increased rates of KRT, and higher hospital costs.
DOI: 10.1016/j.xkme.2019.06.005
Keywords: Acute kidney injury;Chronic Kidney Disease;CKD;Kidney Replacement Therapy
Type: Article
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